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You are here: Home Archive 1955 Hochwasser, Auenlehm und vorgeschichtliche Siedlung: Ein Beitrag auf der Grundlage des Wesergebietes

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Hochwasser, Auenlehm und vorgeschichtliche Siedlung: Ein Beitrag auf der Grundlage des Wesergebietes

DOI: 10.3112/erdkunde.1955.01.02
Year: 1955
Vol: 9
Issue: 1
Pages: 20-39

An investigation of the floods of the middle
Weser river during the last century and the meteorological
conditions which brought them about, showed a clear relationship
between severity of winters and increased frequency
as well as magnitude of flooding. Two types of
floods are distinguished: those mainly due to proceeding
frost and those largely resulting from rain, both occurring
during the winter months and transitional seasons. Real
summer floods are rare. Nevertheless their proportion of
the total must have been higher before superposition of
the haugh-loam, the most recent sediment on the flood
plain. Before the origin of the haugh-loam conditions were
less favourable for complete flooding of the valleys, partly
because of greater variation in the relief of the valley
floors together with the more balanced regime of a still
largely wooded region, and partly as a consequence of less
severe winters during the Post-glacial period of a climatic
optimum which made frost-conditioned floods a rarity.
Thus even the proof of existence of prehistoric settlements
on she flood plain, before it became covered by haughloam,
does not justify the conclusion that the climate was
drier during the time of their existence.
The origin of the haugh-loam along the Weser can be
traced bade to prehistoric times by means of archaeological
finds, but a more precise dating of the beginning of its
formation is not certain. It is very likely that the haughloam
layer experienced various changes during its formation
which explains certain contradictions in an attempt to
establish a chronology by means of archaeological finds.
Pollen analyses show that filling in of river beds by clayey
deposits was occurring during the Atlantic Period but they
do not exclude the possibility that the haugh-loam layer
is more recent. The beginning of haugh-loam deposition
is explained by the co-action of hydrological tendencies
in respect of flood plain formation and the consequences
of changes in the forest cover due to man's intervention;
but further clarification is needed.
The pollen analyses on profiles in former branches of
the Weser near Schlüsselburg on the middle Weser gave no
indications of any noteworthy accumulation on the valley
floor before the deposition of the haugh-loam and an
insignificant sandy layer beneath, which dates back at least
to the Late-Boreal Period.

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